Analgesic use in Wildlife Medicine

Most of the animals that come to the Wildlife Clinic are admitted with traumatic injuries.  Pain medications are commonly administered though dosages and efficacy of these medications are not known for most of the species that we treat.  Studies conducted at the Wildlife Clinic have established dosing references for some of these drugs and have demonstrated the ability to use certain behavioral cues as indications of levels of pain.  In addition, work has been done on mapping opioid receptors in hawk brains.